Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Antiparasitic Effects of Gold Nanoparticles against Echinococcus granulosus Protoscoleces

Raziani, Yosra and Shakib, Pegah and Marzieh Rashidipour, Pegah and Cheraghipour, Koroush and Ghasemian Yadegari, Javad and Mahmoudvand, Hossein (2023) Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Antiparasitic Effects of Gold Nanoparticles against Echinococcus granulosus Protoscoleces. Trop Med Infect Dis.


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Echinococcosis, or hydatidosis, is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, which is initiated by the larval stage in the clasts of Echinococcus granulosus. For the treatment of hydatidosis, surgery is still the preferred method and the first line of treatment for symptomatic patients. Unfortunately, most of the scolicidal agents that are injected inside cysts during hydatid cyst surgery have side effects, including leaking out of the cyst and adverse effects on the living tissue of the host, such as necrosis of liver cells, which limits their use. This work was carried out to study the lethal effect of green synthesized gold nanoparticles (Au-NCs) against hydatid cyst protoscoleces. Au-NCs were green synthesized using the Saturja khuzestanica extract. Au-NCs were characterized by UV-visible absorbance assay, electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Scolicidal properties of Au-NCs (1-5 mg/mL) were studied against protoscoleces for 10-60 min. The effect of Au-NCs on the expression level of the caspase-3 gene as well as the ultrastructural examination was studied by real-time PCR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxicity of Au-NCs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and normal embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell lines was also studied by the cell viability assay. The obtained Au-NCs are cubes and have an average size of 20-30 nm. The highest scolicidal efficacy was observed at 5 mg/mL with 100% mortality after 20 min of treatment for hydatid cyst protoscoleces. In ex vivo, Au-NCs required more incubation time, indicating more protoscolicidal effects. Au-NCs markedly upregulated the gene level of caspase-3 in protoscoleces; whereas they changed the ultra-structure of protoscoleces by weakening and disintegrating the cell wall, wrinkles, and protrusions due to the formation of blebs. We showed the effective in vitro and ex vivo scolicidal effects of Au-NCs against hydatid cyst protoscoleces by provoking the apoptosis process of caspase-3 activation and changing the ultrastructure of protoscoleces with no significant cytotoxicity against human normal cells. However, additional studies should be conducted to determine the possible harmful side effects and accurate efficacy.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > RZ Other systems of medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences > School of Medicine
Depositing User: samira sepahvandy
Date Deposited: 10 Jul 2023 05:59
Last Modified: 10 Jul 2023 05:59

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