Gastrointestinal parasites in immunocompromised patients; A comparative cross-sectional study

Sepahvand, Farzaneh and Javadi Mamaghani, Amirreza and Ezatpour, Behrouz and Badparva, Ebrahim and Zebardast, Nozhat and Fallahi, Shirzad (2022) Gastrointestinal parasites in immunocompromised patients; A comparative cross-sectional study. Acta Trop.

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Gastrointestinal parasites (GIPs), including helminths and protozoa species, are a major health problem in many parts of the world. About 3.5 billion people are affected by the parasites worldwide. GIPs are one of the leading causes of death among immunocompromised individuals and can cause serious clinical complications, especially in people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS, hemodialysis patients, and transplant recipients. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of GIPs among immunocompromised patients and immunocompetent individuals in Lorestan province, West Iran. In the current study, with a sampling of 232 participants (114 hemodialysis, AIDS, and organ transplantation immunocompromised patients and 118 immunocompetent individuals as the control group), demographic characteristics and risk factors for GIPs were collected through a pre-designed questionnaire. Stool samples of patients and the control group were examined for GIPs using different diagnostic methods including direct smear (saline and Lugol's iodine), Ziehl-Neelsen staining, agar-plate culture, and concentration method (formalin ether sedimentation). To evaluate the relative status of the immune system, TCD4+ cells were counted in the blood samples of the subjects by flow cytometry. The results were analyzed using SPSS 21 software, Fisher exact, and chi-square statistical tests. Multivariate modeling of the data was performed using logistic regression. The prevalence of GIPs in immunocompromised patients was more than twice that of immunocompetent individuals in the control group (42.06% vs. 17.79%). The most prevalent parasites identified among immunocompromised patients were Cryptosporidium sp. (27.1%), Blastocystis sp. (16.7%), and Entamoeba coli (14.6%) respectively. Cryptosporidium sp. had the highest frequency among hemodialysis patients (6.49%), AIDS patients (26.92%), and transplant recipients (18.18%) respectively. Patients with AIDS had the highest positive results for Cryptosporidium sp. followed by Microsporidia sp. (23.7%). In immunocompetent individuals, the highest prevalence of GIPs was related to Blastocystis sp and Trichomonas hominis (28.57%). Statistical analysis of the data showed that there was a statistically significant difference between various age groups regarding infection with GIPs so the highest rate of GIPs infection was observed in the age group lower than 50 years (P = 0.035). The statistical difference between the variable of location and infection with GIPs was insignificant but remarkable (P = 0.070). According to the results, it can be concluded that GIP is more common in immunocompromised patients than in immunocompetent individuals with cryptosporidium sp. predominance. Due to the favorable conditions of immunocompromised patients for GIPs and considering them as one of the important sources of parasitic infections and parasite transmission in society, control, prevention, and monitoring of their social behaviors along with health issues are inevitable.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences > School of Medicine
Depositing User: samira sepahvandy
Date Deposited: 01 May 2022 04:19
Last Modified: 01 May 2022 04:19

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