Cigarette Smoking and Opium Use in Relation to the Oral Microbiota in Iran

Moayyedkazemi, Alireza and Wu, Zeni and Han, Yongli and Mohamadkhani, Ashraf and Malekzadeh, Reza (2021) Cigarette Smoking and Opium Use in Relation to the Oral Microbiota in Iran. Microbiol Spectr.


Download (1MB) | Preview


Cigarettes and opium contain chemicals and particulate matter that may modify the oral microbiota. This study aimed to investigate the association between cigarette and opium use with the oral microbiota. A total of 558 participants were recruited from Iran between 2011 and 2015. Individuals were categorized as never cigarette nor opium users, ever cigarette-only smokers, ever opium-only users, and ever both cigarette and opium users. Participants provided saliva samples for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Logistic regression, microbiome regression-based kernel association test (MiRKAT), and zero-inflated beta regression models were calculated. For every increase in 10 observed amplicon sequence variants (ASVs), the odds for being a cigarette-only smoker, opium-only user, and both user compared to never users decreased by 9% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.86 to 0.97), 13% (OR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.01), and 12% (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.96), respectively. The microbial communities differed by cigarette and opium use as indicated by MiRKAT models testing the three beta-diversity matrices (P < 0.05 for all). Three genera were less likely and one genus was more likely to be detected in cigarette-only smokers or opium-only users than in never users. The relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria (never, 14.78%; both, 21.20%) was higher and the phyla Bacteroidetes (never, 17.63%; both, 11.62%) and Proteobacteria (never, 9.06%; both, 3.70%) were lower in users of both cigarettes and opium, while the phylum Firmicutes (never, 54.29%; opium, 65.49%) was higher in opium-only users. Cigarette and opium use was associated with lower alpha-diversity, overall oral microbiota community composition, and both the presence and relative abundance of multiple taxa. IMPORTANCE Cigarette smoking and opium use are associated with periodontal disease caused by specific bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, which suggests a link between cigarette smoking and opium use and the oral microbiota. Alterations of the oral microbiota in cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers have been reported, but this has not been studied across diverse populations. Additionally, the association of opium use with the oral microbiota has not been investigated to date. We conducted this study to investigate differences in the oral microbiota between ever users of cigarettes only, opium only, and both cigarettes and opium and never users of cigarettes and opium in Iran. Lower alpha-diversity, distinct overall oral microbial communities, and the presence and relative abundance of multiple taxa have been found for users of cigarettes and/or opium.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences > School of Medicine
Depositing User: samira sepahvandy
Date Deposited: 18 Sep 2021 03:40
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2022 05:00

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item