The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on human mobility and ambient air quality around the world: A systematic review

Azimi, Faramarz and Faridi, Sasan and Yousefan, Fatemeh and Janjani, Hosna and Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh (2021) The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on human mobility and ambient air quality around the world: A systematic review. Urban Climate.


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We conducted this systematic review to identify and appraise studies investigating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) effect on ambient air pollution status worldwide. The review of studies was conducted using determined search terms via three major electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus) according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach. A total of 26 full-text studies were included in our analysis. The lockdown measures related to COVID-19 pandemic caused signifcant decreases in the concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, PM10, SO2 and CO globally in the range of 2.9%–76.5%, 18.0%–96.0%, 6.0%–75.0%, 6.8%–49.0% and 6.2%–64.8%, respectively. However, O3 concentration increased in the range of 2.4%–252.3%. The highest decrease of PM2.5 was found in 16 states of Malaysia (76.5%), followed by Zaragoza (Spain) with 58.0% and Delhi (India) with 53.1%. The highest reduction of NO2 was found in Sal´ e city (Morocco) with 96.0%, followed by Mumbai (India) with 75.0%, India with 70.0%, Valencia (Spain) with 69.0%, and S˜ ao Paulo (Brazil) with 68.0%, respectively. The highest increase of O3 was recorded for Milan (Italy) with 252.3% and 169.9% during the frst and third phases of lockdown measures, and for Kolkata (India) with 87% at the second phase of lockdown measures. Owing to the lockdown restrictions in the studied countries and cities, driving and public transit as a proxy of human mobilities and the factors affecting emission sources of ambient air pollution decreased in the ranges of 30–88% and 45–94%, respectively. There was a considerable variation in the reduction of ambient air pollutants in the countries and cities as the degree of lockdown measures had varied there. Our results illustrated that the COVID-19 pandemic had provided lessons and extra motivations for comprehensive implementing policies to reduce air pollution and its health effects in the future.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences > School of Medicine
Depositing User: samira sepahvandy
Date Deposited: 14 Jul 2021 04:50
Last Modified: 14 Jul 2021 04:50

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